So let Look At Fluid, Real Women Drink Fluid When "Pregnant" And" Real Mean And Real Women Drink Fluids When We Get Sick Or Are They Talking About Pressure in Fluids?, MAY Be They Mean Fluid Mechanics That Got To Be It , You Know Mechanical Engineering? , Come Think About It, It's Going To Be, The Fluid Mosaic Model , That it, There It Is! , No Wait A Minute, I Got It,There Talking About, Fluid In Lungs, That Got To Be It! We Found It! Party Time! , Nope Fluid In Lungs Was Not It, Well Were S.J.W Come With Gender-Fluid, Crap, There Just No Science To Prove It!
1. Real Women, The Institute of Medicine recommends that pregnant women drink about 10 8-ounce cups of water or other beverages each day.
Women's needs differ, so don't worry if you find yourself needing a bit more or less. You can tell you're getting enough if your urine looks pale yellow or colorless. You're likely to need more fluid than usual in a warm climate, at high altitude, or if you're exercising.
Plain water is an ideal beverage, but milk, juice, coffee, and tea all contain plenty of water and count toward your fluid intake. Keep in mind, though, that juice and sweetened drinks also provide a lot of extra calories, so you don't want to rely on them too much.
It's best to limit caffeine, too, including caffeinated coffee, teas, and sodas. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) advises pregnant women to get no more than 200 milligrams of caffeine per day.
Don't hesitate to drink water and other fluids because you're afraid of retaining water. Oddly enough, fluid retention can result from not drinking enough, because your body will hang on to more fluid if it senses it's becoming dehydrated.
So if your feet and ankles are swollen, drinking more water can actually help. (If swelling is excessive or comes on suddenly, contact your caregiver, as this can be a sign of preeclampsia.)
Fluids also help prevent common pregnancy problems such as constipation, hemorrhoids, and bladder infections. (Drinking water dilutes your urine, which reduces your risk of infection.)
It's especially important to stay hydrated in the last trimester, when dehydration can cause contractions that can trigger preterm labor.
Ten cups might seem like a lot, especially if you're battling nausea during pregnancy. Try sipping water throughout the day rather than drinking a lot at once. If you don't like the taste of water, try adding a lemon or lime wedge or a little juice for additional flavor.
Best (and Worst) Drinks When You Have a Cold
But what, exactly, should you put in your cup? Some drinks are great for easing symptoms, and others may make them worse. Keep these tips in mind when you’re picking what to sip.
Drinks That Help
- Decaf tea. The heat can soothe sore throats, stuffy noses, chest congestion, and upset stomachs. Plus, a warm cup of tea is comforting when you’re feeling rough. If you choose one with herbs like ginger, your immune system may get a small boost, too. For an extra benefit, try adding a small dollop of honey to your cup: it can calm a cough and help you sleep.
- Water with lemon. Hot or cold, it keeps you hydrated and loosens up stuffiness and congestion. Lemon is also high in vitamin C, which may make a cold slightly shorter if you get it regularly.
- Soup. Clear soups and broths give you calories when you may not have much of an appetite. Some research shows they may help relieve inflammation in the body, which can relieve some of your symptoms. The warmth also helps break up mucus.
- Ice chips or ice pops. True, these aren’t technically a beverage, but they have the same purpose: keeping you hydrated.
What You Don’t Need
- Sports drinks. They can help if you’re very dehydrated, but they don't really do much to make you feel better. Plus, they have a lot of sugar. Other drinks will help you hydrate without the extra sweet stuff.
- Fruit juices. Juice may seem like a good idea, especially for kids, but like sports drinks, most have loads of added sugar. Citrus-based ones like orange juice can also aggravate sore throats. If it's all your child wants to drink, try adding a splash or two to a cup of water instead of a glassful of juice.
- Coffee. If you’re going to sip a hot drink, might as well get your daily dose of caffeine in it, right? Wrong. Caffeine can make you dehydrated, which isn’t good when you’re trying to get well. The same goes for soda and caffeinated teas.
- Ginger ale. While ginger in its natural form may have some cold and flu benefits, this carbonated, sugary version won't offer much relief. Soft drinks of any kind have very little of the nutrients and electrolytes you need to fight off sickness. Get your ginger in a mug of hot tea instead.
- Alcohol. It dehydrates you and can make some symptoms worse, like nausea, headaches, and body aches. Booze can also make your body less able to handle infections. So save that hot toddy for when you’re feeling better.
3.How do you find the pressure in a fluid?
What does pressure mean?
How do you find the pressure in a fluid?
What's the difference between absolute pressure and gauge pressure?
What's confusing about pressure?
What do solved examples involving pressure look like?
Example 1: Finding the pressure from the feet of a chair
Example 2: Force on a submarine porthole
- First, What is a fluid?
- Three common states of matter are solid, liquid, and gas.
- A fluid is either a liquid or a gas.
- If surface effects are not present, flow behaves similarly in all common fluids, whether gases or liquids.
- Example - The Penn State Sea Lion
Students in the Penn State Mechanical Engineering Department have designed and built a human powered submarine, named the "Sea Lion" as part of a national contest. In the preliminary stages of the design, back in the early 1990's, some wind tunnel testing was done on various hull shapes and fin shapes. Since the submarine moves below any surface effects, it was perfectly valid to run these tests in a wind tunnel (using air as the working fluid) rather than in water (the actual fluid in which the submarine moves). As will be discussed in a later learning module, drag and lift measurements must, of course, be scaled properly according to the rules of dimensional analysis.
- Example - PSU Harrier experiments
Several years ago, Professor Cimbala had a research grant from NASA to study the interaction of the jet exhaust from a harrier aircraft with the ground, while the aircraft is in hover with a wind blowing. Model tests were conducted in both a wind tunnel and a water tunnel. It was perfectly valid to run these tests in either air or water, since there were no free surface effects to worry about. As will be discussed in a later learning module, the results in either case must be scaled properly according to the rules of dimensional analysis.
- Formal definition of a fluid - A fluid is a substance which deforms continuously under the application of a shear stress.
- Definition of stress - A stress is defined as a force per unit area, acting on an infinitesimal surface element.
- Stresses have both magnitude (force per unit area) and direction, and the direction is relative to the surface on which the stress acts.
- There are normal stresses and tangential stresses.
- Pressure is an example of a normal stress, and acts inward, toward the surface, and perpendicular to the surface.
- A shear stress is an example of a tangential stress, i.e. it acts along the surface, parallel to the surface. Friction due to fluid viscosity is the primary source of shear stresses in a fluid.
- One can construct a free body diagram of a little fluid particle to visualize both the normal and shear stresses acting on the body:
Free Body Diagram, Fluid Particle at Rest:
Consider a tiny fluid element (a very small chunk of the fluid) in a case where the fluid is at rest (or moving at constant speed in a straight line). A fluid at rest can have only normal stresses, since a fluid at rest cannot resist a shear stress. In this case, the sum of all the forces must balance the weight of the fluid element. This condition is known as hydrostatics. Here, pressure is the only normal stress which exists. Pressure always acts positively inward. Obviously, the pressure at the bottom of the fluid element must be slightly larger than that at the top, in order for the total pressure force to balance the weight of the element. Meanwhile, the pressure at the right face must be equal to that on the left face, so that the sum of forces in the horizontal direction is zero.
[Note: This diagram is two-dimensional, but an actual fluid element is three-dimensional. Hence, the pressure on the front face must also balance that on the back face.]
Free Body Diagram, Fluid Particle in Motion:
Consider a tiny fluid element (a very small chunk of the fluid) that is moving around in some flow field. Since the fluid is in motion, it can have both normal and shear stresses, as shown by the free body diagram. The vector sum of all forces acting on the fluid element must equal the mass of the element times its acceleration (Newton's second law).
Likewise, the net moment about the center of the body can be obtained by summing the forces due to each shear stress times its moment arm. As the size of the fluid element shrinks to "zero," i.e. negligibly small, the shear stress acting on one face of the element must be the same magnitude as those acting on the other faces. Otherwise, there would be a net moment, causing the fluid element to spin rapidly!
[Note: To obtain force, one must multiply each stress by the surface area on which it acts, since stress is defined as force per unit area.]
- Definition of stress - A stress is defined as a force per unit area, acting on an infinitesimal surface element.
- Definition of shear stress - Shear stress is defined as a force per unit area, acting parallel to an infinitesimal surface element.
- Shear stress is primarily caused by friction between fluid particles, due to fluid viscosity.
- Fluids at rest cannot resist a shear stress; in other words, when a shear stress is applied to a fluid at rest, the fluid will not remain at rest, but will move because of the shear stress.
- For a good illustration of this, consider the comparison of a fluid and a solid under application of a shear stress: A fluid can easily be distinguished from a solid by application of a shear stress, since, by definition, a fluid at rest cannot resist a shear stress.
If a shear stress is applied to the surface of a solid, the solid will deform a little, and then remain at rest (in its new distorted shape). One can say that the solid (at rest) is able to resist the shear stress. Now consider a fluid (in a container). When a shear stress is applied to the surface of the fluid, the fluid will continuously deform, i.e. it will set up some kind of flow pattern inside the container. In other words, one can say that the fluid (at rest) is unable to resist the shear stress. That is to say, it cannot remain at rest under application of a shear stress.
- Another way of saying this is: A fluid at rest cannot resist a shear stress.
- Note, however, that a fluid at rest can resist a normal stress.
- The dictionary says mechanics is " ... the application of the laws of force and motion ... There are two branches, statics and dynamics. ..."
- Fluid Statics or hydrostatics is the study of fluids at rest. The main equation required for this is Newton's second law for nonaccelerating bodies, i.e. .
- Fluid Dynamics is the study of fluids in motion. The main equation required for this is Newton's second law for accelerating bodies, i.e.
The Components and functions of the Plasma MembraneThe principal components of a plasma membrane are lipids (phospholipids and cholesterol), proteins, and carbohydrates attached to some of the lipids and some of the proteins.
The fluid mosaic model of the plasma membraneThe fluid mosaic model of the plasma membrane describes the plasma membrane as a fluid combination of phospholipids, cholesterol, and proteins. Carbohydrates attached to lipids (glycolipids) and to proteins (glycoproteins) extend from the outward-facing surface of the membrane.
Phospholipid aggregationIn an aqueous solution, phospholipids tend to arrange themselves with their polar heads facing outward and their hydrophobic tails facing inward.
The structure of a phospholipid moleculeThis phospholipid molecule is composed of a hydrophilic head and two hydrophobic tails. The hydrophilic head group consists of a phosphate-containing group attached to a glycerol molecule. The hydrophobic tails, each containing either a saturated or an unsaturated fatty acid, are long hydrocarbon chains.
Structure of integral membrane proteinsIntegral membrane proteins may have one or more alpha-helices that span the membrane (examples 1 and 2), or they may have beta-sheets that span the membrane (example 3).
6.Fluid In Lungs
Fluid in the Chest (Pleural Effusion)
Certain medical conditions can cause a pleural effusion.
Pleural effusions are common, with approximately 1.5 million cases diagnosed in the United States every year, according to the American Thoracic Society. It is a serious condition associated with an increased risk of death. One study has shown that 15 percent of hospitalized people diagnosed with pleural effusions die within 30 days.
Certain types of cancer can cause pleural effusions. Lung and breast cancer are the most common causes.
Other causes of pleural effusions include:
Transudative pleural effusionsThis type is caused by fluid leaking into the pleural space as a result of either a low blood protein count or increased pressure in the blood vessels. Its most common cause is congestive heart failure.
Exudative effusionsThis type is caused by:
- blocked lymph or blood vessels
- lung injury
Complicated and uncomplicated pleural effusionsThere are also complicated and uncomplicated pleural effusions. Uncomplicated pleural effusions contain fluid without signs of infection or inflammation. They’re much less likely to cause permanent lung problems.
Complicated pleural effusions, however, contain fluid with significant infection or inflammation. They require prompt treatment that frequently includes chest drainage.
Common symptoms of pleural effusion include:
- chest pain
- dry cough
- difficulty breathing when lying down
- shortness of breath
- difficulty taking deep breaths
- persistent hiccups
- CT scan
- chest ultrasound
- pleural fluid analysis
Your doctor may schedule a thoracoscopy if they discover you have a pleural effusion, but they’re unable to diagnose which type. A thoracoscopy is a surgical procedure that lets the doctor see inside the chest cavity using a fiber optic camera.
Your doctor will make a few small incisions in the chest area while you’re under general anesthesia. Then they’ll insert the camera through one incision and the surgical tool through the other incision to extract a small amount of fluid or tissue for analysis.
Draining fluidGenerally, treatment involves draining the fluid from the chest cavity, either with a needle or a small tube inserted into the chest. You’ll receive a local anesthetic before this procedure, which will make the treatment more comfortable. You may feel some pain or discomfort at the incision site after the anesthetic wears off. Most doctors will prescribe medication to help relieve pain. You may need this treatment more than once if fluid re-collects.
Other treatments may be necessary to manage fluid buildup if cancer is the cause of the pleural effusion.
PleurodesisPleurodesis is a treatment that creates mild inflammation between the lung and chest cavity pleura. After drawing the excess fluid out of the chest cavity, a doctor injects a drug into the area. The drug is often talc. This medication causes the two layers of the pleura to stick together and prevents the buildup of fluid between the two layers by getting rid of the space between them.
SurgeryIn more serious cases, a doctor surgically inserts a shunt, or small tube, into the chest cavity. This helps redirect the fluid from the chest to the abdomen, where it can be easily removed. Pleurectomy, in which part of the pleural lining is surgically removed, is also an option in very severe cases.
Serious complications include:
- pulmonary edema or fluid in the lungs, which can result from draining fluid too quickly during thoracentesis
- partial collapsed lung
- infection or bleeding
Certain cancers are more likely to cause pleural effusions than others, including:
- lung cancer
- breast cancer
- ovarian cancer
- cervical cancer
- uterine cancer
- shortness of breath
- chest pain
In addition to treating the pleural effusion, your doctor will treat the cancer that caused it. Pleural effusions are typically the result of metastatic cancer.
People who are undergoing treatment for cancer may also have compromised immune systems, making them more prone to infections or other complications.
You will begin your recovery in the hospital, where you’ll receive the necessary medication and care to help you begin to recover. Many people report feeling tired and weak in the first week after they’ve been discharged from the hospital. On average, you will see your incision sites from surgery heal within two to four weeks.